The production system of intellectual economy times
- source:MAJA CNC Machining
Before the development course Industrial Revolution that 1000-5714(1999)01 0040 05 1 of number of article of of of A of code of label of document of TH16 of bugle call of the plan in information of; of economy of knowledge of; of keyword production system is versed in already aid times makes a technology, the society is small to the demand of the product, product breed amount is little, and the price is high.
Industrial Revolution comes at the beginning of this century, manufacturing industry still is given priority to with production of workshop small lot.
To 50 time, the market rises to what industrial product requirement measures, manufacturing industry began to be mass-produced mode of the feature with rigid automation line, let numerical control the technology is applied with what become set technology, rigid product line to have certain and flexible direction development.
As the development of computer technology and comprehensive application, the automation of 70 time workmanship and equipment makes dominant way, the cost structure of the product produced fundamental change, labour force falls to the influence of product cost for secondary.
The theoretical foundation at that time is systematic science and operational research, main goal is to improve level of management, seek the integral benefit of the enterprise, appeared punctual production system (JIT) and excellent production system (LP) .
After entering 80 age, aggravate of international market competition, the user reachs the dynamic demand of much breed to the small lot of the product, and the further progress of computer technology, drive the development of new technology.
Main trend is the rapid development of production technology and level of management is comprehensive rise and design of the engineering inside production system, make, of the functional subsystem such as management overall and harmonious.
Especially the promotion application of FMS and CIMS technology, brought enormous economic benefits to a lot of enterprises.
Arrived 90 time, as the development of IT, the distance between knowledge is shorter and shorter, technical development is rapidder and rapidder.
How to use new technology and new knowledge, with the shortest time development gives the new product that the user needs, make the central point that the company competes.
Around move shorten the product appears on the market time problem of this one core, appeared the working mode of fictitious production technology, collateral project.
Research and the company that use these technologies shortened the development cycle of new product, reduced cost, increased the competitive capacity of the product.
Quiet of 2 knowledge economy comes however the 20 centuries that are about to go, it is the times with the most brilliant development of science and technology of human throughout history, the achievement of science and technology of the science and technology of flying development and without number is changing the face of the world greatly.
The world is about to enter the intellectual economy period that is important sign with IT industry.
The feature of economy of 2 1 knowledge 1996, u.N. " Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development " in " the economy that is a foundation with knowledge " is the intellectual economy concept definition in special subject report: ? Is of Shi of ⒃ of of wall of Meng of poisonous amuses of cover of A Chinese-style unlined garment of fade of creek of stand erect of ⒎ of of of accept of the ⒌ that ask bank wooden ?
Intellectual economy is one kind is in arisen with the brand-new economic configuration that form.
U.N. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development thinks intellectual economy has the following main features: (The quality that the news of main base;(2) that the research development of 1) science and technology makes intellectual economy increasingly and communication technology are in central position;(3) to served course of study to act manpower of main part;(4) in intellectual economy in the development process in intellectual economy and skill become knowledge economy.
The feature with intellectual the mainest economy is the unifinication that produces data and work.
Because create " intellectual value " the knowledge that the most crucial production material is a person is concentrated model intellective.
Consequently " intellectual value " the owner that author turns since into manufacturing data, it is the laborer that creates value.
In intellectual economy times, science and technology is core, talent it is key, education it is a foundation.
The distinction of economy of 2 2 knowledge and labour already aid since industrial revolution, a of industrial economy basic characteristic is the depart that produces data and able-bodied person, and intellectual economy makes this kind of feature produced fundamental change.
The distinction of intellectual economy and labour already aid sees next tables.
The distinction of industrial economy and intellectual economy times expresses key of economy of knowledge of element industry economy the intellective resource such as sth used to one's own advantage of currency of factor of production and objective resource knowledge and intangible assets restricts development element the sources of energy and raw material innovation and knowledge industry structure with large-scale.
In intellectual economy times, knowledge is force not only, and trade to have changeably the capital of value.
The development of economic growth and industry will originate a kind of new capital form -- wisdom capital.
Of industry of new and high technology arisen the knowledge that is core with the Information Industry is concentrated model industry of new and high technology will make new economic point of growth.
The traditional manufacturing industry that is a feature with wasting raw material and the sources of energy in great quantities the pillar position in economy will be replaced by knowledge industry.
The lieutenant general of mutation knowledge economy of traditional manufacturing industry undertakes to traditional manufacturing industry knowledge diffuses quickly, make its knowledge is changed.
Manufacturing industry and the dividing line that serve industry are increasingly additionally ambiguous, almost all manufacturing industry will assume a service.
All sorts of services will make the goods of the enterprise, the service product of ceaseless development reflects those who make company competition ability.
Network and fictitious change intellectual economy have the aid of at " extend in all directions " network and " omnipresent " fictitious skill is tremendous to human society generation with far-reaching influence.
So, also somebody calls intellectual economy network economy.
Intellectual economy makes through the network just about " fictitious " become reality.
Future, buy on the net in manufacturing industry goods, fictitious office, fictitious design, fictitious make, technology and the business such as dummy company will grow quickly.
The production system of times of Nextpage3 knowledge economy arrives this century 70 time, the manufacturing industry of industrial economy times experienced 200 old development, reached the bump peak of its history, meanwhile, knowledge sees clue at the beginning of economy.
Each industrial developed countries organized large quantities of scholars to wait for a respect to sum up experience to technical measure in administrative system, management strategy, production methods, explore the issue such as organization of new thinking industry, raised a variety of ideas that produce production system and pattern early or late.
These modern production systems are traditional manufacturing industry essentially the active preparation that to receive intellectual economy new era place makes.
3 1 is contemporary the CIMS of a few kinds of mode of production system (CIMS) CIM put forward first 1973 by the United States, be " through information with the computer the production with compositive modern implementation is made, get the mode of a kind of production of the overall beneficial result of the enterprise.
" CIMS is CIM philosophic theory is specific reflect, comprise: by 6 parts normally? Does こ of ⒐ of low field of ⑾ of Fei Nao bank lie does ⒓ of low field of は of V of collate of persimmon of ⒅ of low field of of far of Man of garden of ⒅ of low field of of bail chart far attack is Pi of Song of of fade of low clear of Man of Qian low?
The core of CIMS is being managed at company intermediary, production and technology this 3 person between compositive, so that form an unified whole, make the working flow inside whole industry limits, material flows especially iformation flow is straightway.
With traditional automation treatment means differs, what it emphasized iformation flow more is expedite reach treatment.
Excellent production (since 50 time of Lean Production) , japanese automobile manufacturing industry created a kind of production pattern that fits oneself characteristic.
This kind of producer type is integrated odd the advantage of means of production of a producer type and big batch, make the investment of the worker of the factory, equipment, capital, workshop and the time that develop new product decrease greatly, and the product variety that production gives is more, quality is better.
This kind of producer type makes economy of Japan of auto industry down to reachs world banner level.
American scholar calls this kind of new producer form later " excellent production " .
Excellent production has two the markeddest characteristics, it is the effect that emphasizes a person is mixed with " person " for the center.
Emphasize be a center with the person, emphasize play storing namely at everybody the intellective resource in brains, especially the intellective resource of hi-tech content.
2 be it is a method in order to simplify, cut all aborning not to produce the job of value.
Collateral project (the product that Concurrent Engineering) gives high quality to design production with the rapiddest rate participates in the market to compete, 80 time United States and be current of industrial state of a few wests are called the production methods of collateral project one kind, this is a kind of task that will handle by time order and process change a kind of producer form that treats at the same time as far as possible to consider to mix at the same time.
Is institute of American matters pertaining to defense collateral project definition: ? こ of the discharge that install ⑿ drips? of of to bring up of rostellum of Mian of fragrant eight of the that embed a circle includes to make and support a process) the working mode of a kind of systematization that undertakes collateral, unifinication is designed.
Mode of this kind of job can make the product develops personnel to be able to consider the product is whole at the beginning all elements in producing cycle, include quality, cost, plan and user requirement.
Make adroitly (80 time of Agile Manufacturing) , american Lehigh university advanced the new idea of all sorts of a kind of long-term production goals, this is made adroitly namely, it is to show production enterprise uses contemporary communication method, through deploying all sorts of resource quickly (include technology, management and person) , the way that moves with effective chime answers an user to ask, increase a business the ability of meet an emergency in constant change, uncertain management environment.
Particle makes a system (HMS:HProduction system of particle of Olonic Manufacturing System) is at present the biggest international collaboration plans -- intelligence makes a system (one of problems of 6 a lecture given to a large number of students of IMS) .
IMS is initiated by Japan, include the country such as the United States, Europe, Canada to attend, this plan began to carry out 1990.
HMS is dispersive and self-restrained (the treatment system of Holon) , by the standard, of autonomy, of intelligence and the module of mutual cooperation -- particle (Holon) composition.
So that certain and advanced production system is different,HMS and tradition make a system, is its characteristic: ? The technical base of Zuo MS is not to have those who center type construction to give rank website sth resembling a net (be like CIMS) , be based on the distributinging information network of dispersive type concept and control system however.
② is in subsystem character respect, particle has autonomic sex of height and intelligence.
③ is in systematic character respect, what HMS expression is the cooperation between its particle and height is flexible, finish the same goal of production of HMS through cooperation, those who carry the relation between particle and action recombine implementation to be answered of interior and exterior change quickly to the system at any time.
④ HMS emphasizes a person the action in the system, utmost ground produces the person's effect.
Since 90 time, the international collaboration of HMS already had very great progress, after completing user demand definition and analysis of main influencing factor, academia and business circles combination studied a lot of test systems, at present the research of whole of the research of fundamental technology and system is undertaking.
Above all sorts of advanced production systems are to build in stock, capital, the sources of energy, especially the network of information optimizes management over, this asks not only the support of advanced technical equipment, should relying on advanced administrative philosophic theory to coach; manages advancedly more should rely on to manage a talent to reflect.
The advanced sex of production system returns body to be able to last its now on development.
Along with the development of social progress, technology, especially the change of client demand, advanced production system must ceaseless ego innovates, this support masters advanced technique and the talented person that have innovation capacity.
The development trend manufacturing industry of production system of times of economy of 3 2 knowledge is in industrial economy times, having brilliant history as pillar industry, in intellectual economy times, although manufacturing industry holds the position of dominant no longer, but like doing not have agriculture impossibly like industrial economy times, information society must have manufacturing industry and agriculture likewise.
In intellectual economy the times should develop to be pillar industry of the foundation with knowledge energetically already, should quicken again undertake dilate to industrial economy and agricultural economy, through raising intellectual content, make industrial economy and agricultural economy knowledge are changed.
The development of intellectual economy is not the development that eliminates corporeal economy, want those who make the progress of corporeal economy better to follow the objective law that develops naturally however.
Traditional manufacturing industry wants successful " grow " intellectual economy times, must absorb gain of all science and technology that intellectual place creates with all one's strength, undertake an ego that is core with revolution of modern science and technology changes.
The production that regards production material as the product is organized -- production system, its traditional character, will be replaced the administrative way that if little breed, big batch is rigid,spreads water production and Taylor to make by place of new production idea, production technology, production philosophic theory.
Can develop view production system to be transformed gradually by resource development mode continuously for technology development mode, support science and technology progresses, resource conservation and the sources of energy, raise benefit to reduce trash to discharge, carry out clean production and civilized consumption, the new development pattern that establishs economy, society, resource and environmental photograph to coordinate.
The whole world makes the globalization of business world economy, make traditional small and complete, big and entire company does not have competition ability more and more.
The joint development of all sorts of open mode, production sells a system to increase increasingly.
From production of the originality design of the product, component and sale, till each link such as after service can part by the dummy company at different district, through some kind bond undertakes mutual benefit cooperates, this is the development that global production; is IT, drove transnational corporation to make progress to the whole world.
Just about the occurrence that the whole world makes, answer of the efficiency that makes make, benefit, market quickly, of resource use effectively had huge to rise, enhanced the market competition ability of the enterprise greatly thereby.
The product of ceaseless innovation and production process will have a lot of special demand as a result of the user of each district of the internationalization of the market, world, additional, because technical high speed develops, the lifecycle of the product is shorter and shorter, these ask the enterprise innovates ceaselessly oneself product and production process.
The fictitious design that modern technology offers, build model and assemble a technology, can raising product function and dependability while, reduce development risk, appear on the market time and charge, also need not undertake prototype tries go to.
The production system below economy of sound knowledge of manufacturing origanization construction must establish strong production origanization construction and reasonable moving mechanism, below the support of communication network technology, comfortable instantly puts power, certain even and decision-making process also can be put below, the company is coordinated through superstratum, give companionate enterprise to be done in coordination each job dispersedly.
The company should be mixed according to companionate specific productivity production process, the differentiating that solves good production process, costing and interest are shared wait for a problem.
Intellectual management as intellectual economy arisen, business management will enter intellectual management phase gradually, this kind change revolutionarily, cause a series of innovation of idea of business management of enterprise necessarily.
In the product accumulate the basis that contained intellectual amount becomes competition and the key that decide victory or defeat.
The knowledge that has to place undertakes effective protection, make a below intellectual economy new main component.
Knowledge is a kind of intangible assets, limit to it, use, allocate and be in classify to all fall unlike agricultural economy to land, labor, and the to mine, resource, workshop, equipment management below industrial economy.
To the enterprise, the science management of the knowledge that has to place will be mixed innovation is coequal and main, because it affects the abidance of the endurance to wisdom capital and enterprise,develop a problem.
Information Industry category is belonged to to intellectual management in the production system of intellectual economy.